How to cite this article: J Cancer Metasta Treat ;2: Despite the fact that currently existing therapeutic approaches are highly effective and can markedly improve clinical outcome in cancer patients with even advanced diseases, the problems of treatment resistance, therapy recurrences and unfavorable disease progression are still not solved. It is generally believed that the small population of the intratumoral carcinoma stem cells CSCs is responsible for poor clinical outcome, because CSCs are considered as a reason for the tumor heterogeneity, diminished sensitivity to chemo- and radiotherapy and enhanced abilities for metastatic spread.
Sources of ionizing radiation include medical imaging and radon gas. Ionizing radiation is not a particularly strong mutagen.
Children and adolescents are twice as likely to develop radiation-induced leukemia as adults; radiation exposure before birth has ten times the effect. Ionizing radiation may be used to treat other cancers, but this may, in some cases, induce a second form of cancer. Cancer syndrome The vast majority of cancers are non-hereditary sporadic.
Hereditary cancers are primarily caused by an inherited genetic defect. Statistically for cancers causing most mortality, the relative risk of developing colorectal cancer when a first-degree relative parent, sibling or child has been diagnosed with it is about 2.
Since height is genetically determined to a large extent, taller people have a heritable increase of cancer risk. It is possible that repeated burns on the same part of the body, such as those produced by kanger and kairo heaters charcoal hand warmersmay produce skin cancer, especially if carcinogenic chemicals are also present.
Chronic inflammation has been hypothesized to directly cause mutation. These higher hormone levels may explain their higher risk of breast cancer, even in the absence of a breast-cancer gene. People with untreated celiac disease have a higher risk, but this risk decreases with time after diagnosis and strict treatment, probably due to the adoption of a gluten-free dietwhich seems to have a protective role against development of malignancy in people with celiac disease.
However, the delay in diagnosis and initiation of a gluten-free diet seems to increase the risk of malignancies. Also, immunomodulators and biologic agents used to treat these diseases may promote developing extra-intestinal malignancies.
Carcinogenesis Cancers are caused by a series of mutations. Each mutation alters the behavior of the cell somewhat. Oncogenomics Cancer is fundamentally a disease of tissue growth regulation.
In order for a normal cell to transform into a cancer cell, the genes that regulate cell growth and differentiation must be altered. Oncogenes are genes that promote cell growth and reproduction. Tumor suppressor genes are genes that inhibit cell division and survival. Malignant transformation can occur through the formation of novel oncogenes, the inappropriate over-expression of normal oncogenes, or by the under-expression or disabling of tumor suppressor genes.
Typically, changes in multiple genes are required to transform a normal cell into a cancer cell. The gain or loss of an entire chromosome can occur through errors in mitosis. More common are mutationswhich are changes in the nucleotide sequence of genomic DNA.
Large-scale mutations involve the deletion or gain of a portion of a chromosome. Genomic amplification occurs when a cell gains copies often 20 or more of a small chromosomal locus, usually containing one or more oncogenes and adjacent genetic material.
Translocation occurs when two separate chromosomal regions become abnormally fused, often at a characteristic location. A well-known example of this is the Philadelphia chromosomeor translocation of chromosomes 9 and 22, which occurs in chronic myelogenous leukemia and results in production of the BCR - abl fusion proteinan oncogenic tyrosine kinase.
Disruption of a single gene may also result from integration of genomic material from a DNA virus or retrovirusleading to the expression of viral oncogenes in the affected cell and its descendants.Introduction. The human microbiome is defined as the collective genomes of the microbes (composed of bacteria, bacteriophages, fungi, protozoa and viruses) that live inside and on the human body, and there are approximately 10 microbes and microbial genes for each human cell and gene respectively.
Introduction to focused issue on mHealth and social media interventions for cancer Rapid advances in mHealth and social media technologies are contributing to a burgeoning number of novel clinical and public health interventions for preventing, controlling, diagnosing, and treating cancer (1,2).
Current Colorectal Cancer Reports. Mar 1;1(1).
Available from, DOI: /s Ajani, Jaffer A. / Editor's commentary: Introduction to the first issue. Welcome to the Archives in Cancer Research, one of the 18 journals published by Insight Medical Publishing.: Since this is the first editorial introduction to this journal, let me start by saying that the Vision of Insight Medical Publishing is to provide an open service to scientists that is driven by clinicians and researchers while also serving the interests of the general public.
Introduction. ARC Journal of Cancer Science is an open access, peer reviewed, multidisciplinary journal, which covers all parts of tumor exploration including essential, preclinical, clinical, translational, sub-atomic, epidemiological, avoidance, treatment, and recovery.
Introduction to the Special Issue: Timely Detection of Cervical Cancer SILVIA C. ROBLES,~ GUEST ED~R THE EPIDEMIOLOGIC PICTURE Every year more than 68 new cases.